Smokeless powders were introduced as a black powder replacement in the 1880's. Besides generating a lot less smoke, smokeless powder burns much cleaner and more efficiently than black powder, greatly reducing powder fouling and increasing the performance of the shotgun, handgun, and rifle cartridges in which it is used. It is also much safer to produce than black powder, which has saved many lives over the years. Smokeless powder consists of nitrocellulose (single-base powders), frequently combined with up to 50 percent nitroglycerin (double-base powders), and sometimes nitroglycerin and nitroguanidine (triple-base), corned into small spherical balls or extruded into cylinders or flakes using solvents such as ether. Other minor ingredients, such as stabilizers and ballistic modifiers, are also added. Double-base propellants are common in handgun and rifle ammunition. Triple-base propellants are more common in artillery guns.